JEE Main 2021 Syllabus

NTA has released the syllabus for JEE main which is divided into 3 sections i.e. Maths, Chemistry, Physics. JEE main syllabus is composed of the Class 11th and 12th syllabus. The JEE main syllabus remains the same this year also. Candidates are advised to study each and every topic given in the JEE main syllabus.

JEE Main Syllabus: Chemistry

JEE Main( syllabus for chemistry is divided into three sections-

Section A Syllabus: Physical Chemistry .


Matter  and  its  nature,  Dalton's  atomic theory:  Concept  of  atom,  molecule, element and compound: quantities  and  their  measurements  in Chemistry, precision and significant  figures.  S.I.Units,  dimensional analysis:  Laws  of  chemical  combination; Atomic  and  molecular  masses,  mole concept, molar mass, composition,  empirical  and  molecular formulae: Chemical  equations  and stoichiometry. 


Classification  of  matter  into  solid,  liquid and gaseous  states. 

Gaseous State: Measurable  properties  of  gases:  Gas  laws  - Boyle's  law,  Charle’s  law.  Graham's  law  of diffusion.  Avogadro's  law,  Dalton's  law  of partial  pressure;  Concept  of  Absolute  scale of  temperature;  Ideal  gas  equation;  Kinetic theory  of  gases  (only  postulates);  Concept of  average,  root  mean  square  and  most probable  velocities;  Real  gases,  deviation from  Ideal  behaviour,  compressibility factor  and van  der  Waals equation. 

Liquid State: Properties  of  liquids  -  vapour  pressure, viscosity  and  surface  tension  and  effect  of temperature  on  them  (qualitative  treatment only). 

Solid State: Classification  of  solids:  molecular,  ionic, covalent  and  metallic  solids,  amorphous and  crystalline  solids  (elementary  idea); Bragg's Law and its applications:  Unit  cell and  lattices,  packing  in  solids  (fcc,  bcc  and hcp  lattices),  voids,  calculations  involving unit  cell  parameters,  an  imperfection  in solids;  Electrical  and magnetic properties. their 


Thomson  and  Rutherford  atomic  models and limitations; Physical Nature of electromagnetic  radiation,  photoelectric effect;  Spectrum  of  the  hydrogen  atom. Bohr  model  of  a  hydrogen  atom  -  its postulates,  derivation  of  the  relations  for the  energy  of  the  electron  and  radii  of  the different  orbits,  limitations  of  Bohr's model;  Dual  nature  of  matter,  de  Broglie's relationship. Heisenberg accuracy, percentage uncertainty principle.  Elementary  ideas  of  quantum mechanics,  quantum  mechanics,  the quantum mechanical  model of  the  atom,  its important  features.  Concept  of  atomic orbitals  as  one-electron  wave  functions: Variation  of    and  2  with  r  for  1s  and  2s orbitals;  various   quantum  numbers  (principal,  angular momentum  and  magnetic  quantum numbers)  and  their  significance;  shapes  of s,  p  and  d  -  orbitals,  electron  spin and  spin quantum  number:  Rules  for  filling electrons  in  orbitals  –  Aufbau  principle. Pauli's  exclusion  principle  and  Hund's  rule, electronic  configuration  of  elements,  extra stability  of  half-filled  and  completely  filled orbitals. 


Kossel  -  Lewis  approach  to  chemical  bond formation,  the  concept  of  ionic  and covalent  bonds. 

Ionic  Bonding:  Formation  of  ionic bonds, factors  affecting  the  formation  of  ionic bonds;  calculation  of  lattice  enthalpy. 

Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity.  Fajan’s  rule,  dipole moment:  Valence  Shell  Electron  Pair Repulsion  (VSEPR  )  theory  and  shapes  of simple molecules. Quantum  mechanical  approach  to covalent  bonding:  Valence  bond  theory  - its  important  features,  the  concept  of hybridization  involving  s, p  and d orbitals; Resonance. Molecular  Orbital  Theory  -  Its  important features.  LCAOs,  types  of  molecular orbitals  (bonding,  antibonding),  sigma  and pi-bonds,  molecular  orbital  electronic configurations  of  homonuclear  diatomic molecules,  the  concept  of  bond  order,  bond length and bond  energy. Elementary  idea  of  metallic  bonding. Hydrogen bonding  and its  applications. 


Fundamentals  of  thermodynamics:  System and  surroundings,  extensive  and  intensive properties,  state  functions,  types  of processes. The  first  law  of  thermodynamics  - Concept  of  work,  heat  internal  energy  and enthalpy,  heat  capacity,  molar  heat capacity;  Hess’s  law  of  constant  heat summation; Enthalpies dissociation, combustion, of bond formation, atomization,  sublimation,  phase transition, hydration, ionization  and solution. The  second  law  of  thermodynamics  - Spontaneity  of  processes;  S  of  the universe  and  G  of  the  system  as  criteria for  spontaneity.    G  (Standard  Gibbs energy  change)  and  equilibrium  constant. 


Different  methods  for  expressing  the concentration  of  solution  -  molality, molarity,  mole  fraction,  percentage  (by volume  and  mass  both),  the  vapour pressure  of  solutions  and  Raoult's  Law  - Ideal  and  non-ideal  solutions,  vapour pressure  -  composition,  plots  for  ideal  and non-ideal  solutions;  Colligative  properties of  dilute  solutions  -  a  relative  lowering  of vapour  pressure,  depression  of  freezing point,  the  elevation  of  boiling  point  and osmotic molecular pressure; mass Determination  of using colligative properties;  Abnormal  value  of  molar  mass, van’t  Hoff  factor  and its  significance. 


Meaning  of  equilibrium,  the  concept  of dynamic equilibrium. Equilibria  involving  physical  processes: Solid-liquid,  liquid  -  gas  and  solid-gas equilibria, Henry's law. General characteristics  of  equilibrium  involving physical  processes. Equilibrium involving chemical processes:  Law  of  chemical  equilibrium, equilibrium  constants  (Kp  and  Kc)  and  their significance,  the  significance  of  G  and  G in  chemical  equilibrium,  factors  affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature,  the  effect  of  catalyst;  Le Chatelier’s principle. Ionic  equilibrium:  Weak  and  strong electrolytes,  ionization  of  electrolytes, various  concepts  of  acids  and  bases (Arrhenius.  Bronsted  -  Lowry  and  Lewis) and  their  ionization,  acid-base  equilibria (including  multistage  ionization)  and ionization  constants,  ionization  of  water. pH scale,  common  ion  effect,  hydrolysis  of salts  and  pH  of  their  solutions,  the solubility  of  sparingly  soluble  salts  and solubility  products, buffer  solutions. 


Electronic  concepts  of  oxidation  and reduction,  redox  reactions,  oxidation number,  rules  for  assigning  oxidation number, balancing  of  redox  reactions. Electrolytic  and  metallic  conduction, conductance  in  electrolytic  solutions, molar  conductivities  and  their  variation with  concentration:  Kohlrausch’s  law  and its  applications. Electrochemical  cells  -  Electrolytic  and Galvanic cells, different types  of electrodes,  electrode  potentials  including standard  electrode  potential,  half  -  cell  and cell  reactions,  emf  of  a  Galvanic  cell  and its  measurement:  Nernst  equation  and  its applications;  Relationship  between  cell potential  and  Gibbs'  energy  change:  Dry cell  and  lead accumulator;  Fuel  cells. 


Rate  of  a  chemical  reaction,  factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration,  temperature,  pressure  and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions,  order  and  molecularity  of reactions,  rate  law,  rate  constant  and  its units,  differential  and  integral  forms  of zero  and  first-order  reactions,  their characteristics  and  half-lives,  the  effect  of temperature  on  the  rate  of  reactions, Arrhenius  theory,  activation  energy  and  its calculation,  collision  theory  of  bimolecular gaseous  reactions  (no derivation). 


Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption  and  their  characteristics, factors  affecting  adsorption  of  gases  on solids - Freundlich  and  Langmuir adsorption  isotherms,  adsorption  from solutions. Catalysis - Homogeneous and heterogeneous,  activity  and  selectivity  of solid  catalysts,  enzyme  catalysis  and  its mechanism. Colloidal  state-  distinction  among  true solutions, colloids and  suspensions, classification  of  colloids  -  lyophilic. lyophobic; multimolecular. macromolecular  and  associated  colloids (micelles),  preparation  and  properties  of colloids  -  Tyndall  effect.  Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation  and  flocculation:  Emulsions and their  characteristics. 

Section B Syllabus- Inorganic Chemistry


Modem  periodic  law  and  present  form  of the  periodic  table,  s,  p.  d  and  f  block elements,  periodic  trends  in  properties  of elements  atomic  and  ionic  radii,  ionization enthalpy,  electron  gain  enthalpy,  valence, oxidation states  and chemical  reactivity. 


Modes of occurrence  of  elements  in  nature, minerals,  ores;  Steps  involved  in  the extraction  of  metals  -  concentration, reduction  (chemical  and  electrolytic methods)  and  refining  with  special reference  to  the  extraction  of  Al.  Cu,  Zn electrochemical  principles  involved  in  the extraction  of  metals. 


Position  of  hydrogen  in  periodic  table, isotopes,  preparation,  properties  and  uses of  hydrogen;  Physical  and  chemical properties  of  water  and  heavy  water; Structure,  preparation,  reactions  and  uses of  hydrogen  peroxide;  Classification  of hydrides  -  ionic,  covalent  and  interstitial; Hydrogen as a  fuel. 


Group  -1 and  2  Elements General introduction, electronic configuration  and  general  trends  in physical  and  chemical  properties  of elements,  anomalous  properties  of  the  first element  of  each  group,  diagonal relationships. Preparation  and  properties  of  some important  compounds  -  sodium  carbonate and  sodium  hydroxide  and  sodium hydrogen  carbonate;  Industrial  uses  of lime,  limestone.  Plaster  of  Paris  and cement:  Biological  significance  of  Na,  K. Mg and Ca. 

P-  BLOCK  ELEMENTS Group  -13  to Group 18  

Elements General Introduction: Electronic configuration  and  general  trends  in physical  and  chemical  properties  of elements  across  the  periods  and  down  the groups;  unique  behaviour  of  the  first element  in each group. Groupwise  study  of  the  p  -  block elements Group  -13 Preparation,  properties  and  uses  of  boron and  aluminium;  Structure,  properties  and uses  of  borax,  boric  acid,  diborane,  boron trifluoride,  aluminium  chloride  and  alums. Group  -14 The  tendency  for  catenation;  Structure, properties  and  uses  of  Allotropes  and oxides  of  carbon,  silicon  tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites  and silicones. 

d  -  and  f-  BLOCK  ELEMENTS.

Transition Elements General introduction, configuration, electronic occurrence and characteristics,  general  trends  in  properties of  the  first-row  transition  elements  - physical  properties,  ionization  enthalpy, oxidation  states,  atomic  radii,  colour, catalytic  behaviour,  magnetic  properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds,  alloy  formation;  Preparation, properties  and  uses  of    K2Cr2O7,  and KMnO4. Inner  Transition  Elements Lanthanoids  -  Electronic  configuration, oxidation states contraction. and lanthanoid Actinoids  -  Electronic  configuration  and oxidation states. 


Introduction  to  co-ordination  compounds. Werner's  theory;  ligands,  co-ordination number,  denticity.  chelation;  IUPAC nomenclature of ordination mononuclear  co-- compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence  bond  approach  and  basic ideas  of  Crystal  field  theory,  colour  and magnetic  properties;  Importance  of  co-- ordination  compounds  (in  qualitative analysis,  extraction  of  metals  and  in biological  systems). 


Environmental  pollution  -  Atmospheric, water  and  soil. Atmospheric  pollution  -  Tropospheric and Stratospheric Tropospheric  pollutants  -  Gaseous pollutants:  Oxides  of  carbon,  nitrogen  and sulphur,  hydrocarbons;  their  sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse  effect  and  Global  warming: Acid rain; Particulate  pollutants:  Smoke,  dust, smog,  fumes,  mist;  their  sources,  harmful effects and  prevention. Stratospheric  pollution-  Formation  and breakdown  of  ozone,  depletion  of  the ozone layer  -  its mechanism  and effects. Water  Pollution  -  Major  pollutants  such as. pathogens,  organic  wastes  and chemical  pollutants;  their  harmful  effects and prevention. Soil  pollution  -  Major  pollutants  such  as; Pesticides  (insecticides.  herbicides  and fungicides),  their  harmful  effects  and prevention. Strategies environmental to control pollution 

Section C Syllabus- Organic Chemistry


Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography - principles and their applications. Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae: Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, 


Tetravalency of carbon: Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p): Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series: Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond - Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.    


Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane): Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes. Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism: Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoffs and peroxide effect): Ozonolysis and polymerization. Alkynes - Acidic character: Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides: Polymerization. Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration.  Friedel - Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene. 


General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform freons and DDT. 


General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols: mechanism of dehydration. Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. nitration and sulphonation. Reimer - Tiemann reaction. Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde  and  Ketones:  Nature  of carbonyl  group;  Nucleophilic  addition  to >C=O  group,  relative  reactivities  of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions  such  as  -  Nucleophilic  addition reactions  (addition  of  HCN.  NH3,  and  its derivatives),  Grignard  reagent;  oxidation: reduction (Wolf Kishner and Clemmensen);  the  acidity  of  -hydrogen. aldol  condensation,  Cannizzaro  reaction. Haloform  reaction,  Chemical  tests  to distinguish between Ketones. Carboxylic Acids aldehydes  and Acidic strength and  factors  affecting  it, 


General methods of Properties,  reactions and  uses. preparation. Amines:  Nomenclature,  classification structure,  basic  character  and  identification of  primary,  secondary  and  tertiary  amines and their  basic  character. Diazonium  Salts:  Importance  in  synthetic organic  chemistry. 


General  introduction  and  classification  of polymers, general polymerization, - methods Addition condensation,  copolymerization. of and Natural  and  synthetic,  rubber  and vulcanization,  some  important  polymers with  emphasis  on  their  monomers  and  uses –  polythene, nylon, polyester  and bakelite. 


General  introduction  and  importance  of biomolecules. CARBOHYDRATES  -  Classification; aldoses  and  ketoses:  monosaccharides (glucose  and  fructose)  and  constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose  and maltose). PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of -amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides. Proteins:  primary,  secondary,  tertiary  and quaternary  structure  (qualitative  idea only),  denaturation  of  proteins, enzymes. VITAMINS  –  Classification  and functions.   NUCLEIC  ACIDS  –  Chemical constitution of  DNA  and  RNA. Biological  functions of  nucleic acids. 


Chemicals  in  Medicines  -  Analgesics, tranquillizers,  antiseptics,  disinfectants, antimicrobials, anti-fertility drugs, antibiotics,  antacids.  Anti-histamines  their  meaning  and  common  examples. Chemicals  in  food  -  Preservatives, artificial  sweetening  agents  -  common examples. Cleansing  Agents  -  Soaps  and  detergents, cleansing  action 


Detection  of  extra  elements  (Nitrogen, Sulphur,  halogens)  in  organic  compounds; Detection  of  the  following  functional groups;  hydroxyl  (alcoholic  and  phenolic), carbonyl  (aldehyde  and  ketones)  carboxyl and amino groups  in organic compounds.   The  chemistry  involved  in  the  preparation of  the  following: Inorganic  compounds;  Mohr’s  salt,  potash alum. Organic  compounds:  Acetanilide,  p-nitro acetanilide, aniline yellow,  iodoform.   The  chemistry  involved  in  the  titrimetric exercises  –  Acids,  bases  and  the  use  of indicators,  oxalic-acid  vs  KMnO4,  Mohr’s salt  vs KMnO4   Chemical  principles  involved  in  the qualitative salt  analysts: Cations  –  Pb2+,  Cu2+,  Al3+,  Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,  NH4+ 

Anions-  CO32−,  S2-,SO42−,  NO3-,  NO2-,  Cl-, Br-,  I-  (  Insoluble salts excluded). Chemical  principles  involved  in  the following  experiments: 

1. Enthalpy  of  solution of  CuSO4 

2.  Enthalpy  of  neutralization  of  strong  acid and strong  base. 

3. Preparation  of  lyophilic  and  lyophobic Anions-  CO32−,  S2-,SO42−,  NO3-,  NO2-,  Cl-, Br-,  I-  (  Insoluble salts excluded). Chemical  principles  involved  in  the following  experiments: 1. Enthalpy  of  solution of  CuSO4 2.  Enthalpy  of  neutralization  of  strong  acid and strong  base. 

4.  Kinetic  study  of  the  reaction  of  iodide ion  with  hydrogen  peroxide  at  room temperature.