Governmental Initiatives for Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation in India

Poverty alleviation refers to the set of measures and government interventions — both, economic & humanitarian — to lift people out of the vicious circle of poverty. It is the prerogative of the government of a country to ensure the well-being of its citizens by providing them opportunities to emerge out of poverty.

This can be done by fostering economic growth, which, in turn, will generate employment; thereby reducing poverty. Hence, a country needs to have a comprehensive poverty-reduction strategy. In India, governments since Independence, have been trying to implement schemes and strategies for employment generation and poverty reduction.

We will cover a few important ones in this article. But before that, let us first understand the concept of poverty.

Defining Poverty

Poverty is a condition wherein an individual lacks the financial resources & essential conditions for meeting the minimum standard of living. It refers to the condition wherein the economic condition of a person is so low that even the most basic needs are not met.

Different Types of Poverty

The two major types of poverty are Absolute Poverty and Relative Poverty. Let us discuss each of them briefly:

Absolute Poverty

Absolute poverty refers to the condition wherein an individual is bereft of even the basic necessities, including food, shelter, and clothing to meet the basic living standards. Introduced in 1990, it identified those living below “a dollar a day” as being in absolute poverty. In 2015, the World Bank reconsidered it and reset the poverty line to $1.90 a day.

Relative Poverty

Relative poverty is the condition in which people lack the minimum amount of income needed to maintain the average standard of living in their respective society. Hence, it is a measure of income inequality within a country.

Governmental Initiatives for Poverty Alleviation & Employment Generation in India

Considering the importance of poverty alleviation, to foster economic growth in a country, the government of India has, since independence, taken various measures in the form of initiatives and schemes to alleviate poverty and to generate employment. Some of these initiatives are given below.

Initiatives for Poverty Alleviation

  1. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
  2. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana/Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana
  3. Rural Housing – Indira Awaas Yojana
  4. Food for Work Programme
  5. National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)
  6. Annapurna Scheme
  7. Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
  8. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005
  9. National Rural Livelihood Mission: Aajeevika (2011)
  10. National Urban Livelihood Mission
  11. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
  12. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana

Government Initiatives for Employment Generation in India

The initiatives undertaken by the government of India since independence for employment generation are:

  1. Nehru Rozgar Yojana
  2. National Food for Work Programme
  3. Training of Rural Youth for Self-employment
  4. National Rural Employment Programme
  5. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme
  6. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
  7. Rural Employment Generation Programme
  8. Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana For Educated Unemployed Youth
  9. Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana
  10. Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
  11. Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana
  12. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
  13. Employment Assurance Scheme
  14.  Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
  15. Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana - National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
  16. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

This was a brief overview of the topic, including a list of the government-run schemes to alleviate poverty and generation of employment. You need to prepare this in more detail for the RBI Grade-B Main Exam. Make sure you know a bit more about the schemes, such as the date/year on/in which they were launched, under which Ministry, and the primary objectives.

We have covered this topic & more in detail in our course for RBI Grade-B Main Exam preparation. You can check our course offerings here. For more details, do get in touch with our course counselors.