The social structure of India topic under the ESI section includes several points including: Social structure of India, Multiculturalism, Urbanization, Migration, Demographic Trends, Theories of Demography, Government Indexes, Social Security Agreements (SSA) and Employee Provident Fund (EPF).


  1. Social structure of India - various social groups and their classification (groups, tribes, etc.)
  2. Multiculturalism - concept of multiculturalism, applications of multiculturalism in the Indian society
  3. Urbanization - concept and definition of urbanization, characteristics of urbanization
  4. Migration - definition, reasons for migration, factors to consider when migrating
  5. Demographic Trends - including social and dynamic demographic trends 
  6. Theories of Demography 
  7. Government Indexes - such as the GPI or Gender Parity Index
  8. Social Security Agreements (SSA)
  9. Employee Provident Fund (EPF)  - definition, importance, sources of funding, etc.

A brief description of the above topics is given below:

Social Structure of India:
The social structure of Indian society is categorised by religious, regional, linguistic, communal and caste diversities. All these factors define the environment of Indian social structure, social system and political system.

Multiculturalism: -
Multiculturalism is a situation in which all the different cultural or racial groups in a society have equal rights and opportunities, and none is ignored or regarded as insignificant.

Urbanisation is an increase in the number of people living in towns and cities. Urbanisation occurs mainly because people move from rural areas to urban areas and it results in growth in the size of the urban population and the extent of urban areas.

Migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible.

Demographic Trends:
Demography is the study of the growth, structure, and movement of human populations. It focuses on enumerations (censuses), which take stock of a population at a moment in time, and runs to vital events—births, deaths, marriages, and migratory movements.
The Open Government Index is composed of four dimensions: publicized laws and government data, right to information, civic participation, and complaint mechanisms.

Social Security Agreements (SSA):
Social Security Agreement is a bilateral agreement between India and a foreign country designed to protect the interests of cross border workers. The agreement provides for evasion of 'double coverage' and ensures equality of treatment to workers of both countries from a social security perspective.

Employee Provident Fund (EPF):
Employee's Provident Fund (EPF) is a retirement benefit scheme that's available to all salaried employees. This fund is maintained and overseen by the Employees Provident Fund Organisation of India (EPFO) and any company with over 20 employees is required by law to register with the EPFO.

You need to be thorough with these above topics. Remember that the questions will be twisted and asked hence it is important that you know them in and out. You should not only know the meaning of these topics but also how it impacts the economy, advantages, disadvantages, causes, etc.

The questions will be in MCQ format so you should be clear with the concepts to ensure that the wrong options do not affect you.

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